Central Bureau of Investigation 


Central Bureau of Investigation 
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CBI & its Roles
Overview | CBI & its Roles | Divisions
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), functioning under Dept. of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances, Government of India, is the premier investigating police agency in India. It is an elite force playing a major role in preservation of values in public life and in ensuring the health of the national economy. It is also the nodal police agency in India, which coordinates investigation on behalf of Interpol Member countries.

Over the years, CBI has built up an image for professionalism and integrity. The services of its investigating officers are sought for all major investigations in the country. The Supreme Court, the High Courts, the Parliament and the public, holds CBI as an organization in high esteem. The CBI has to investigate major crimes in the country having interstate and international ramifications. It is also involved in collection of criminal intelligence pertaining to three of its main areas of operation, viz., Anti-Corruption, Economic Crimes and Special Crimes.

The Anti-Corruption Division of the CBI has handled cases against Chief Ministers, Ministers, Secretaries to Government, Officers of the All India Services, CMDs of Banks, Financial Institutions, Public Sector Undertakings, etc.

CBI investigations have a major impact on the political and economic life of the nation. The following broad categories of criminal cases are handled by the CBI:

  • Cases of corruption and fraud committed by public servants of all Central Govt. Departments, Central Public Sector Undertakings and Central Financial Institutions.
  • Economic crimes, including bank frauds, financial frauds, Import Export & Foreign Exchange violations, large-scale smuggling of narcotics, antiques, cultural property and smuggling of other contraband items etc.
  • Special Crimes, such as cases of terrorism, bomb blasts, sensational homicides, kidnapping for ransom and crimes committed by the mafia/the underworld.
A Director heads the CBI. The other police ranks in CBI are Special Director/Addl. Director, Joint Director, Dy. Inspr. General of Police, Inspector, Sub-Inspector, Assistant Sub-Inspector, Head Constable and Constable. The total sanctioned police strength including all ranks is 4078. The sanctioned strength of administrative staff is 1284.

In addition, CBI has also a sanctioned strength of 230 Law officers, 155 technical posts, 144 Group D posts and 64 Dept. Canteen Staff and 171 posts of Scientists in CFSL.
Budget estimate for the Year 2005-2006 are as under: (Rupees in thousands)
Plan Rs. 21,0000
Non-Plan Rs. 115,28,00
Capital Rs. 7,00
Superintendence over CBI
As per the CVC Act notified on 12.09.2003, the superintendence over CBI as far as it relates to investigation of the offences alleged to have been committed under the Prevention of Corruption Act 1988, shall vest in Central Vigilance Commission.
Powers, privileges and liabilities
The legal powers of investigation of CBI are derived from the DSPE Act 1946. This Act confers concurrent and coextensive powers, duties, privileges and liabilities on the members of Delhi Special Police Establishment (CBI) with Police Officers of the Union Territories. The Central Government may extend to any area, besides Union Territories, the powers and jurisdiction of members of the CBI for investigation subject to the consent of the Government of the concerned State Govt. While exercising such powers, members of the CBI of or above the rank of Sub Inspector shall be deemed officers in charge of Police Stations of respective jurisdictions. The CBI can investigate only such of the offences as are notified by the Central Government under the DSPE Act.

Jurisdiction of CBI vis-a-vis State Police

Law and Order is a State subject and the basic jurisdiction to investigate crime lies with State Police. Besides, due to limited resources, CBI would not be able to investigate crimes of all kind. CBI may investigate:

  • Cases which are essentially against Central Govt. employees or concerning affairs of the Central Govt.
  • Cases in which the financial interests of the Central Government are involved.
  • Cases relating to the breaches of Central Laws with the enforcement of which the Government of India is mainly concerned.
  • Big cases of fraud, cheating, embezzlement and the like relating to companies in which large funds are involved and similar other cases when committed by organised gangs or professional criminals having ramifications in several States.
  • Cases having interstate and international ramifications and involving several official agencies where, from all angles, it is considered necessary that a single investigating agency should be in charge of the investigation.